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    A burgeoning European appetite for basil, a versatile aromatic herb in the mint family, has opened a window of opportunity for farmers in Nakuru County who are now earning up to Sh200, 000 a month in exports.

    Working with Premier Seeds Limited, a vegetable seed company, the farmers, who have traditionally relied on the overcrowded cereal farming, have now found a lifeline in a perennial herb whose multiple health and nutritional benefits has made it a hit internationally.

    International buyers say East Africa meets a paltry 15 per cent of their demand for the herb even as markets continue to balloon following discovery of new uses of the herb. “The markets have expressed insatiable appetite for the herb. With our first farmers, we are producing 1.6 tonnes of basil against a demand 6tonnes per month from the importer we work with. The onus is on us to sell us more, the markets keep telling us,” said Mr. Simon Andys the founder of Premier Seeds.

    READ ALSO: Nakuru farmers exporting chives

    To get maximum output that meets international standards, the herb is grown in greenhouses. To assist farmers who might not meet the cost of constructing the greenhouses, Premier Seeds has entered into a financing agreement with financial institutions allowing farmers to own greenhouses which they later pay for in installments from the proceeds of the basil at agreed rates with the financiers. The financing also caters for the sale of seeds and agronomic support. The farmers grow Premier Seeds Sweet Aroma 3 variety, which belongs to the sweet basil variety, one of the most preferred varieties by chefs globally.

    The herb has become an instant hit among Nakuru farmers making an initial foray into horticulture for its ease of cultivation and growth traits. A bushy annual plant, it takes on average 42 days to mature and produces light green silky leaves which tastes somewhat like cloves with a strong pungent and sweet smell. Farmers harvest the leaves after every ten days. A typical greenhouse measuring 8 by 30 meters produces on average 125 kilos of basil every week with a kilo going for Sh390. In a month a farmer is able to make on average up to Sh180, 000. The crop is also a pest and mosquito repellent meaning and is rarely attacked by pests.

    In a bid to inculcate farmers to farming practices that meets international standards, Premier Seeds has also trained farmers how to adhere to good agricultural practices like Global GAP and EureGap. Such farming practices include pest management and pesticides use, use of certified propagated materials plus tractability “We take time to explain to the farmers we are working with, that the export market is very particular about the quality of the produce we sell to them. That will be determined by what they do in the farm. We are glad the farmers have taken this to heart,” said Mr. Andys. Buyers also make ad hoc visits to farms to track the growing conditions of the herbs.

    Such trainings have assisted farmers in understanding the quality of herbs required for exports. After harvesting, farmers grade and package the herbs in the farm on their own before the herbs are taken to the airport. “The farmers know for example the right leaves and stems required in the international markets. So they do the sorting, grading and packing themselves. They know if they package the wrong quality their produce will be rejected. They have become so good in it that we have not had any problem with our international buyers,” Andys added.

     READ ALSO:Farmers  earning extra revenue from herbs

    And as the international markets warm up further to the culinary herb, Premier Seeds is now preparing to work with the farmers to grow another set of herbs including coriander, oregano, lovage, dill and Melissa in the course of the year. “We are responding to market demands. The demand for basil has been meteoric and when the buyers suggested that we should consider growing the other herbs we said why not,” Said Andys.

    A health conscious middle class is driving the growth of culinary herbs and spices in the international markets which has been on a meteoric rise and currently stands at $2.3 billion according to data from the International Trade Center. Key markets include the EU which in 2013 imported 302,000 tonnes of spices and herbs from developing countries like Kenya worth € 1 billion.

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    Residents of dry region in the country can mint thousands of shillings in a few days by rearing silk worms on the naturally growing acacia trees.

    Silk worms are some of the smallest ‘livestock’ that have been reared for centuries globally, but Kenya is yet to realise the high potential in this textile industry raw material.

    The small animals feed on mulberry, acacia, lettuce, among other trees.

    Mulberry is the commonest feed, but given that arid and semi arid regions have acacia trees, it will not be a challenge to farmers.

    According the Nairobi-based International Centre for Insect Physiology and Ecology (ICIPE), one-three mitre acacia tree can comfortably support at least 200 silk worms.

    The organisation buys the yarn from farmers, therefore, no struggling in looking for the market.

    A mature worm takes three to four days to form cocoon of silk around itself.

    From this one tree, a farmer would harvest at least 0.375 kilogrammes of silk in three to four days.

    On average, 0.375 kg of silk would yield about 2.5 mitres of material. The cost of one mitre of the material ranges between Sh900 and Sh950.

    This means a farmer can harvest between Sh2,375 and Sh2,500 from one acacia tree.

    With leaves of just 10 acacia trees, a farmer can harvest at least Sh95,000 after one month from just 1,000 silk worms.

    Women groups spins income from silkworms

    Unfortunately, the livestock do not live for more than two months.

    Silk worm eggs take between six and 20 days to hatch, depending on the provided conditions.

    They mature after 26 days when they start spinning soft creamy white cocoon from the salivary glands.

    The slippery white fluid hardens on contact with air.

    The worm will turn into moth, and a female will mate and lay about 500 eggs.  Males die almost immediately after mating while females do so after about five days.

    If the eggs are too many to hatch at once, a farmer can refrigerate them. Hatching takes place within a week if the eggs are kept in temperatures of between 78 degrees and 85 degrees. In cool temperatures, they can hatch in two weeks.

    Scientists target silk worms in controlling malaria

    ICIPE has an established training centre for famers at its Nairobi headquarters targeting women from drier regions.

    The feacal materila from the creatures is rich organic manure.

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    An Embu County farmer, who ran out of patience of waiting for more than five years for a dismal harvest from macadamia, has cracked the nut to double yield after crafting a grafted variety.

    Joseph Thiga says adventure in search of high and fast maturing macadamia varieties got him out of the rest to post at least 100 kilos per tree every season. he says this is double the harvest he got from ordinary macadamias.

    “I have not grown macadamias in large scale, but I earn between Sh150,000 and Sh200,000 from the 20 plants I have every season,” he says.

    Although his aim was improving his produce, Thiga now sells grafted seedlings too.

    “I use the indigenous macadamia stalk which has very good root network. I add the scion from Muranga 20 or Embu 1. Because of the good root network of the resultant crop, the trees are stable. The scion is hastened to flower fast and produce more starting from the second year onwards,” he says.

    By the fifth year, the tree produces more macadamia for commercial purposes.

    The grafted variety produces uniform seeds, which are highly marketable, he says.

    In 100 kilogrammes, less than 10 kilogrammes will be found to have inconsistent sizes or quality. There is no much grading like in ordinary nuts, and this contributes to his higher earnings.

    Macadamias trees are sensitive to chemicals. Spraying for aphids only happens during the flowering stage.

    He applies farm manure to improve soil productivity.

    Thiga hopes to earn more after the completion of a Sh200 million Privamnuts Kenya Limited macadamia factory in the county.

    The 1,000-metric tonnes per season processing Muthatari factory will save more farmers, who have been selling their produce to middle men prematurely.

    The county processes about 5,000 metric tonnes between March and July, the main harvesting season.

    Germany, Netherlands, USA, Japan are among the global markets for this nut.

    He sells seedlings at Sh300 each and he can be reached on 0727505512.

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